This fact is apparent in the works of William Penn, as Andrew Murphy analyses in this special issue. 82 Helga Varden, ‘A Kantian Conception of Free Speech’, in Freedom of Expression in a Diverse World, ed. – ISBN 978-0-231-187145. Scholars have stressed the religious roots of early Enlightenment ideas concerning freedom of conscience and worship, as well as the role that religious groups, such as English dissenters and French Jansenists, played in eighteenth-century debates on toleration.41 In response to this trend, scholars who understand the Enlightenment as a decline of religion have stressed the importance of secular theories of toleration, particularly highlighting Spinoza's influence as a thinker with no more religion than nature and reason. Ecrasez l’infâme! XV, 155–9. 43, Religious toleration in the Age of Enlightenment Guest … The anti-philosophes seized every opportunity to point out that Bayle and Locke denied toleration to Catholics, that several articles of the Encyclopédie advocated the repression of atheists, and that Rousseau favoured a compulsory civic religion.21 According to the enemies of the Enlightenment, these examples revealed the philosophe's claims for tolerance as absolutely inconsequential.22 Modern commentators, for their part, have often interpreted the intolerant traces in Enlightenment theories as paradoxes and blind spots in an otherwise clear commitment to freedom from and of religion. 27 David Hume, The History of Great Britain, under the House of Stuart (London, 1759), vol. He envisions his role as therapeutic rather than destructive. In theology, pietism served to promote new scientific discoveries and theories. Even those who believed all religions to be part of the same truth or who searched for a minimal religion that could embrace many different beliefs tended to loathe actual religions for claiming to be the one true religion and for considering their faith incompatible with others. This transformation altered the conditions under which religion was practised. Series: Faux Titre Online, Volume: 326; Faux Titre, Volume: 326; Editor: Ourida Mostefai. 67 Voltaire, Essay sur l’histoire générale, v. VIII, ch. Baron d'Holbach, for instance, was a very harsh critic of monarchs for protecting churches and fostering religious fanaticism, but also wrote that absolute power could be a very useful tool if employed against the real enemies of society.81, Enlightenment theories on toleration often insisted that allowing for different religions in the same state would not disrupt moral uniformity and political stability in any way. 9. Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, Introduction: Religious toleration in the Age of Enlightenment, Institute for Culture and Society (ICS), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. Therefore, the civilly disobedient individual, who is willing to put his head on the block in order to abrogate unjust laws, is in fact the legally responsible individual par excellence. Thus the South Asian record of tolerating, even celebrating, religious and intellectual diversity rivals or exceeds that of the West. In both cases, the justification has, The following text argues that in the theory of construction and maintenance of social reality proposed by the social philosopher John Searle, the power of images to bond individuals in society is left aside. Counter-Enlightenment writers were not completely wrong when talking about the fanaticism of the philosophes. 71 Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (London, 1776), vol. Rousseau and L'Infâme: Religion, Toleration, and Fanaticism in the Age of Enlightenment Rousseau and L'Infâme: Religion, Toleration, and Fanaticism in the Age of Enlightenment. But even those like Kant who signalled the benefits of a public discussion about politics, usually denied freedom of seditious speech that could promote resistance to established authority.82 To make clear that Aufklärung was not a danger to princes' authority, Kant noted that philosophers never formed ‘seditious factions’.83 Voltaire, for his part, insisted that philosophers were not a threat to authorities because they ‘will never form a religious sect’ and their writings were ‘not calculated for the vulgar’.84 It is true that, elsewhere, the philosophes showed interest in changing society and creating public opinion, but they were also concerned that a generalization of political freedoms could lead to the triumph of the masses' prejudices over Enlightenment reforms.85. 68 Holbach, Système de la nature (London, 1770), vol. thinkers, Mill regarded religious freedom as the virtually exclusive product of Western civilization, even though he had the honesty to admit that intolerance "is so natural to mankind ... that religious freedom has hardly anywhere been practically realized, except where religious indifference, which dislikes to have its peace disturbed by theological quarrels, has added its weight to the scale. In fact, the alleged religious duty to follow one's conscience was sometimes perceived as dangerously similar to religious enthusiasm, in which allegiance to one's own beliefs frees the individual from obeying the laws. Itinerario - European Journal of Overseas History. Protestant Conscience, Enlightenment Reason, and Modern Subjectivity (Toronto, 2001), 9. In this article, I analyse some pre-Humean arguments for and against tolerance by early eighteenth-century Scottish philosophers and theologians. According to them, the Enlightenment understanding of toleration as an unconditional principle radically differs from previous views in which toleration was essentially a practical means for achieving a political goal. 72 Thomas Paine, Rights of Man (London, 1791), 78–9. XIX, 554. The first of these questions is the same one Kant tried to answer in 1784: ‘What is the Enlightenment?’ I do not pretend to downplay the plurality of realities encompassed in this term, but I think that, even if one prefers to pose it in the plural form, the question of what the different Enlightenments have in common still demands an answer. In his classic study on The Rise of Toleration, Henry Kamen argued that the theory of toleration was essentially completed with Locke and Bayle. An aspiration for unity and concord was present even in the non-Christian Enlightenment. Ecrasez l’infâme! The rules of behavior, public manners, the elements of appearance and clothing become the material signs of nonmaterial ideas. Name: Period: Document Title: A Treatise on Toleration Author: Voltaire 1. accessible for the majority of people. Catherine the Great of Russia abolished torture and criticized the institution of serfdom. Bayle was far from alone in considering that sectarian divisions and theological dogmas always threaten the public repose.37 If he, like other Enlightenment authors, did not propose enforcing religious unity, it was mainly because he believed that such a remedy would be even worse than the disease. An Address to the Roman Catholics of the United States of America (Annapolis, 1784), 114. 93 R. I. Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Authority and Deviance in Western Europe 950-1250 (Hoboken, 2007). 19 Henry Kamen, The Rise of Toleration (London, 1967), 216–39; Jonathan Israel, Radical Enlightenment, 265–70; Perez Zagorin, How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West (Princeton, NJ, 2005), 240–88; (Cambridge, 2006); Rainer Forst, Toleration in Conflict. (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1995), I: i-xxvi, 589. He hoped for the establishment of a ‘truly Catholic and Christian Church’ that embraces ‘all who by the rule of the Gospel are manifestly not shut out from heaven’. Tabula Rosa. The idea of conscience as a moral guide has been central to the Christian tradition since the teachings of Paul.48 Even scholastic theologians, such as Thomas of Aquinas, insisted that obeying one's conscience was always a moral imperative. (Paris, 1759... Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta Serija 4 Istorija Regionovedenie Mezhdunarodnye otnoshenija. Subsequently, it discusses specific issues: the crisis of national identity and its reflections in theatre; the role of classics in the theatre repertoire; Amy Wyngaard, an Assistant Professor of French at Syracuse University, has published essays on Marivaux, Watteau, and Rétif de la Bretonne. The alleged lack of originality and philosophical depth of works such as the Traité sur la tolérance is, in fact, symptomatic of this eighteenth-century cultural change. The First Modern Revolution (New Haven, CT, 2009), 143–79. Even in France, where the Edict of Nantes had been issued in 1598, then revoked in 1685, there was very little support for religious toleration at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Prior to the European wars of religion, there were relevant intellectual attempts to submit religious authority to political power.16 In the sixteenth century, programmes aimed at neutralizing religious threats to civil authority and social peace multiplied in response to the Reformation and the wars of religion. In the case of France, for instance, toleration gained such a good name in the central decades of the eighteenth century, that even those who most openly denied the rights of religious minorities started to do so in the name of tolerance.100. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. Registered in England & Wales No. Religion is deemed to be irrelevant to the demands of modernity. In Europe, it first took root in the second half of the sixteenth century as a pragmatic response to religious divisions that could not be suppressed. II, 5–9. Concord, toleration and exclusion were easily combined in Locke's writings. 292-352. Examining European gentlemen’s debates over mermaids and tritons illuminate their willingness to embrace wonder in their larger. Historical circumstances, however, ultimately led Luther to ignore his own reasons and demand that public authority ‘repress blasphemy, false doctrines and heresy’.96 Enlightenment writers were well aware of the distance between reasons for toleration and the practice of tolerance. H. Wayne Pipkin, & John H. Yoder (Scottdale, 1989), 58–66. The character of unmasking of religion in the secularized everyday-life is explained with reference to J. Baudrillard’s interpretation of simulation and simulacra and to P. Sloterdijk’s analysis of cynical consciousness. He stressed that philosophers should be freed from every impediment to the discovery of the truth, but for the whole of society he prescribed a public religion that is almost identical with ethics, but that nonetheless depends on obedience to God.47. For most scholars, toleration prior to the Enlightenment was no more than a practical measure taken by governments that could not enforce religious conformity. As already noted, the distinction between pragmatic and Enlightenment toleration does not reflect a historical reality. 9 Robert Darnton, ‘The High Enlightenment and the Low-Life of Literature in Pre-Revolutionary France’, Past and Present, 51 (1971): 81–115. L'autonomisation de la raison politique au XVIe siècle (Paris, 1997). 37 Pierre Bayle, Reponse aux questions d’un provincial (Rotterdam, 1707), vol. Jon Parkin and Timothy Stanton (Oxford, 2011), 59–105. Get this from a library! 3. Ulrich L. Lehner and Michael Printy (Leiden, 2010); Enlightenment and Catholicism in Europe. See, for example, Jacques-Antoine-Hyppolyte Guibert, Voyages dans diverses parties de la France et en Suisse, faits en 1775, 1778, 1784, 1785 (Paris: d'Heutel, 1806); Jean-Pierre Papon, Voyage de Provence (1787), ed. The early Enlightenment already prompted a notable intensification, especially in England and Holland, of previous campaigns for toleration.